Infocenter [26]
Terms: Daily Calorie Needs
based on your activity level using the Harris Benedict Equation. The original equations from Harris and Benedict are: for men, 66.4730 + (13.7516 * w) + (5.0033 * s) - (6.7550 * a) for women, 65.50955 + (9.5634 * w) + (1.8496 * s) - (4.6756 * read more
Microelements: Sodium
FUNCTION Maintains fluid volume outside of cells and thus normal cell function. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Processed foods to which sodium chloride (salt) /benzoate/phosphate have been added; salted meats, nuts, cold cuts; margarine; butter; salt read more
Microelements: Potassium
FUNCTION Maintains fluid volume inside/outside of cells and thus normal cell function; acts to blunt the rise of blood pressure in response to excess sodium intake, and decrease markers of bone turnover and recurrence of kidney stones. SELECTED read more
Microelements: Zinc
FUNCTION Component of multiple enzymes and proteins; involved in regulations of gene expression SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Fortified cereals, red meats, certain seafood. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION Reduce copper status. SPECIAL read more
Vitamins: Vitamin D
FUNCTION Maintain serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Fish liver oils, flesh of fatty fish, liver and fat from seals and polar bears, eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D, fortified milk products and fortified read more
Vitamins: Vitamin E
FUNCTION A metabolic function has not yet been identified. Vitamin E’s major function appears to be as a nonspecific chain breaking antioxidant. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Vegetable oils, unprocessed cereal grains, nuts, fruits, vegetables, meats. ADVERSE read more
Vitamins: Vitamin B6
FUNCTION Coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, glycogen and sphingoid bases SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Fortified cereals, organ meats, fortified soy-based meat substitutes. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION No adverse effects associated read more
Vitamins: Vitamin B12
FUNCTION Coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism; prevents megaloblastic anemia. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Fortified cereals, meat, fish, poultry. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION No adverse effects have been associated with the consumption read more
Vitamins: Thiamin
FUNCTION Coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branchedchain amino acids. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Enriched, fortified, or whole-grain products; bread and bread products, mixed foods whose main ingredient is grain, and ready-to-eat cereals. ADVERSE read more
Microelements: Selenium
FUNCTION Defense against oxidative stress and regulation of hyroid hormone action, and the reduction and oxidation status of vitamin C and other molecules. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Organ meats, seafood, plants (depending on soil selenium content). ADVERSE read more
Vitamins: Riboflavin
FUNCTION Coenzyme in numerous redox reactions. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Organ meats, milk, bread products and fortified cereals. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION No adverse effects associated with riboflavin consumption from food or supplements read more
Macronutrients: Protein
FUNCTION Serves as the major structural component of all cells in the body, and functions as enzymes, in membranes, as transport carriers, and as some hormones. During digestion and absorption dietary proteins are broken down to amino acids, which read more
Microelements: Phosphorus
FUNCTION Maintenance of pH, storage and transfer of energy and nucleotide synthesis SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Milk, yogurt, ice cream, cheese, peas, meat, eggs, some cereals and breads ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION Metastatic calcification, read more
Microelements: Pantothenic Acid
FUNCTION Coenzyme in fatty acid metabolism. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Chicken, beef, potatoes, oats, cereals, tomato products, liver, kidney, yeast, egg yolk, broccoli, whole grains. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION No adverse effects associated read more
Microelements: Niacin
FUNCTION Coenzyme or cosubstrate in many biological reduction and oxidation reactions—thus required for energy metabolism. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Meat, fish, poultry, enriched and wholegrain breads and bread products, fortified ready-to-eat read more
Microelements: Manganese
FUNCTION Involved in the formation of bone, as well as in enzymes involved in amino acid, cholesterol, and carbohydrate metabolism. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Nuts, legumes, tea, and whole grains. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION Elevated read more
Microelements: Magnesium
FUNCTION Cofactor for enzyme systems SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Green leafy vegetables, unpolished graines, nuts, meat, starches, milk ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION There is no evidence of adverse effects from the consumption of naturally read more
Microelements: Iron
FUNCTION Component of hemoglobin and numerous enzymes, Prevent microcytic hypochromic anemia SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Fruits, vegetables and fortified bread and grain products such as cereal (non-heme iron sources), meat and poultry (heme iron sources). ADVERSE read more
Macronutrients: Fiber
FUNCTION Improves laxation, reduces risk of coronary heart disease, and assists in maintaining normal blood glucose levels. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Includes dietary fiber naturally present in grains (such as found in oats, wheat, or unmilled rice) read more
Microelements: Copper
FUNCTION Component of enzymes in iron metabolism SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, wheat bran cereals, whole grain products, cocoa products ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION Gastrointestinal distress, liver damage. SPECIAL read more
Macronutrients: Carbohydrate
FUNCTION RDA based on its role as the primary energy source for the brain; AMDR based on its role as a source of kilocalories to maintain body weight. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Starch and sugar are the major types of carbohydrates. Grains and vegetables read more
Microelements: Calcium
FUNCTION Essential role in blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and bone and tooth formation SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Milk, cheese, yogurt, corn tortillas, calcium-set tofu, Chinese cabbage, kale, broccoli ADVERSE EFFECTS OF read more
Terms: BMR
Basal Metabolic Rate BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is the amount of energy expended while at rest, meaning you are inactive, doing nothing. BMR decreases with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Physical activity and increased muscle mass can boost read more
Terms: RDA
Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) is average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life-stage and gender group. read more
Vitamins: Vitamin C
VITAMIN C FUNCTION Cofactor for reactions requiring reduced copper or iron metalloenzyme and as a protective antioxidant. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Citrus fruits, tomatoes, tomato juice, potatoes, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, strawberries, read more
Vitamins: Vitamin A
VITAMIN A FUNCTION Required for normal vision, gene expression, reproduction, embryonic development and immune function. SELECTED FOOD SOURSCES Liver, dairy products, fish, darkly colored fruits and leafy vegetables. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE read more

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